Each soldier from the Hastati and Principes lines carried two javelins.
This heavy javelin, known as a Pilum (plural "pila"), was about two metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank, about 7 mm in diameter and 60 cm long, with pyramidal head, secured to a wooden shaft.
The peltasts, usually serving as skirmishers, were armed with several javelins, often with throwing straps to increase stand-off power.
The iron shank was either socketed or, more usually, widened to a flat tang .
A pilum usually weighed between two and four kilograms, with the versions produced during the Empire being somewhat lighter.
Seven spear-like objects were found in a coal mine in the city of Schöningen, Germany.
Stratigraphic dating indicates that the weapons are about 400,000 years old.