The radiation may come from outside the body (external radiation) or from radioactive materials placed into or right next to the tumor (internal or implant radiation).Radiation is sometimes used along with other treatments, such as before or after surgery, or along with chemo. As with chemo, radiation therapy can affect normal cells as well as cancer cells.Normal brain cells grow quickly in the first few years of life, making them very sensitive to radiation.
Chemotherapy damage to quickly dividing cells can cause side effects such as low blood cell counts, nausea, diarrhea, or hair loss during treatment.
Other things that can affect a child’s risk include: Late effects are caused by the damage that cancer treatment does to healthy cells in the body.
Most late effects are caused by chemotherapy or radiation. Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells.
Surgery is an important part of treatment for many cancers.
As with other types of treatment, the possible long-term effects of surgery depend on a number of different factors.