Klasies river mouth site dating

Mortality peaked in infancy and adolescence, coinciding with weaning, and the onset of adult activities, such as hunting.

Research now centers on how many dispersal events occurred; how these are reflected in modern human genetics; whether language origin was crucial to the process; and whether modern behavior emerged gradually or suddenly.GENETIC KEYS TO THE ORIGINS OF MODERN HUMANS Beginning in the 1980s, different measures of genetic variability were tested, especially in the work of Rebecca Cann, including blood groups, mitochondrial DNA, and the Y chromosome, which support a single origin. ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE EMERGENCE OF “MODERN” BEHAVIOR IN MIDDLE STONE AGE AFRICA After 100,000 years ago, the archaeological record reveals new behavioral patterns, related to the biological emergence of anatomically modern suggesting a new cognitive threshold had been crossed.Previously, most work concentrated on Europe and related to a later period, but now a growing number of African Middle Stone Age sites are showing that people displayed modern behavior by 150,000 years ago: personal ornamentation, use of pigments, and possible mortuary rituals.THE CLIMATIC BACKGROUND Modern humans evolved in a context of global climatic fluctuation, reflected in oxygen isotope ratios in ice and deep-sea cores.Over the last 400,000 years, there were at least four interglacials, four severe glacials, and stadials/interstadials within and between these.

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