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Disbar for alcohol abuse; attorney substance abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics and professional responsibility; CLE; Continuing Legal Education. Jaffari; a limited liability company is bound by the operating agreement signed by some members and that defines the LLC's governance and operation, even if the LLC itself did not sign. Geist; A manager of an LLC has the apparent authority to bind the LLC when he executes in its name an instrument for carrying on, in the usual way, its business or affairs. peremptory challenge; batson challenge; strike in camera.

Professional ethics; ethics lawyer; lawyer ethics; legal ethics issues; attorney substance abuse and drug addiction; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; Mandatory Continuing Legal Education. The admission at trial of hearsay statements does not violate confrontation clause as long as declarant is unavailable and statements are sufficiently reliable, based either on firmly rooted hearsay exception or other showings of trustworthiness.

8's requirement of short and plain statement of the plaintiff's claim that is simple, concise, and direct; on information and belief. Withrow; When a party has signaled consent to the magistrate judge's authority to hear a case through actions rather than words, there is little value in strict insistence on an express consent requirement. Sanderson Plumbing Products, Inc; A discrimination plaintiff's case may be sufficient to submit to the jury if consists of a prima facie case of discrimination and sufficient evidence that defendant's proffered explanation was merely a pretext. Koenig; Just as questions from the bench can provide insight that helps lawyers make a stronger case, so too can questions from the jury help lawyers tailor their presentations; motion in limine. MGM Grand Hotel, Inc; Where the jury is still available, a district court's decision to resubmit an inconsistent verdict for clarification is within its discretion; comparative negligence; contributory negligence. Walker; The elements of a Rule 60(d) cause of action include (1) a judgment that, in equity and good conscience, ought not be enforced; (2) a good defense to the cause of action on which the judgment is founded; (3) fraud, accident. Hallock; Collateral order requirements (1) conclusively determine the disputed question, (2) resolve an important issue completely separate from the merits of the action, and (3) be effectively unreviewable on appeal; collateral order doctrine. Sturgell; The rule against nonparty preclusion is subject only to certain recognized exceptions: (1) a nonparty may agree to be bound by a judgment, (2) certain substantive relationships..; virtual representation; virtual representation doctrin National Equipment Rental, Ltd. Szukhent; a contractually designated agent's prompt acceptance and transmittal to named defendants of a summons and complaint, pursuant to authorization contained in the contract, constitutes adequate service. Praxair, Inc; Under Federal Rule of Procedure 15(c), an amendment that changes the party against whom a claim is asserted relates back to the date of the original pleading under certain limited conditions such as related companies. Kroger; plaintiff in diversity case cannot rely on ancillary jurisdiction to permit amendment to complaint to bring claim against non-diverse third-party defendant; complete diversity; diversity jurisdiction. Russell; Time limits for filing a notice of appeal are jurisdictional in nature, and the untimely filing of notice, even if filed in reliance on a district court order, deprives the court of appeals of jurisdiction; equitable; habeas corpus. American Brands, Inc; An appeal as of right may be taken from interlocutory orders of federal district courts granting, continuing, modifying, refusing, or dissolving injunction; consent decree; interlocutory. TREX, Inc; Interlocutory appeals are within court's discretion, and will be granted only when court certifies that each ruling presented for appeal involves a controlling question of law as to which there is substantial difference of opinion. ACLU; statute that suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech is unconstitutional if less restrictive alternatives exist to further the governmental objective; content-based restriction; preliminary injunction. Du Pont Advance Fiber Sys; Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11, a complaint must not be presented for an improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or cost of litigation; contain claims warranted by existing law. Paragon Group, Inc; A defendant's claims against a plaintiff must be asserted as a counterclaim if arise out of the transaction or occurrence and do not require the presence of third parties over whom the court lacks jurisdiction. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc; The burden of proving that a challenged discovery request is relevant is on the party who makes the request, while proving that the request is unduly burdensome rests with the party making the objection. Target Corp; Spoliation is the destruction or material alteration of evidence or the failure to preserve property for another\'s use as evidence in pending or reasonably foreseeable litigation; mitigation-of-damages doctrine. West LB AG; A court may shift the cost of restoring and searching for relevant information in an electronic form when the party who converts the data into an inaccessible format should have reasonably anticipated a need to produce that data. Harris; When opposing parties tell two different stories, and one is blatantly contradicted by the record so that no reasonable jury could believe it, a court should not adopt that version for purposes of ruling on a motion for summary judgment. PV Holding Corp; When determining a party's domicile, the controlling factors are the party's actual place of residence and the real intention of remaining there as disclosed by the party's entire course of conduct. Derderian; The Multiparty, Multiforum Trial Jurisdiction Act (MMTJA) requires federal courts to abstain when substantial majorities of all plaintiffs and of the principal defendants are residents of a single state. Tenet Healthsystem Memorial Medical Center, Inc; The Class Action Fairness Act (CAFA) creates a narrow exception to federal jurisdiction and allows the discretionary remand of purely local actions. Professional ethics; ethics lawyer; lawyer ethics; legal ethics issues; attorney substance abuse and drug addiction; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; Mandatory Continuing Legal Education. Warrantless arrest permitted even for a misdemeanor or infraction punishable only by a fine; if an officer has probable cause to believe that a person has committed a very minor criminal offense, the officer may arrest that person without a warrant. Certifying a corporation's financial condition, question for the jury, fairly presented the financial condition of a corporation, generally accepted accounting priniciples, generally accepted auditing standards, material, materiality. Superior Court; A disclaimer in a standard job application advising an applicant that he or she need not complete certain sections as provided by local law must be clear and conspicuous . Proctor Hospital; Under the cat's paw theory, discriminatory animus of non-decisionmakers can be imputed to decisionmakers only when the non-decisionmaker has a singular influence over the decisionmaker and uses that influence. Metropolitan Government Nashville; Under Title VII, an employee may "oppose" unlawful employment practice as required as a condition precedent to a retaliation claim even though opposition is not expressed as a discrimination claim. De Stefano; Under Title VII, before an employer can engage in intentional discrimination for the asserted purpose of avoiding or remedying an unintentional disparate impact, must have a strong basis to believe disparate-impact liability. Schneider National, Inc.; An employer is free to decide that some physical and mental characteristics that do not constitute an impairment are more or less preferable and may make individual employees more or less suitable for the job. Legal Aid Society; Under the Americans with Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act (ADA), employers must accommodate requests that facilitate arrival and departure from workplace if no undue hardship on operation employer's business. Walters; Specific information provided by employer to employee, in course of employment, and for sole purpose of servicing employer's customers, is legally protectable as confidential proprietary information. Search of passenger compartment of automobile is permissible if officer has reasonable belief, based on specific and articulable facts and rational inferences from facts, that suspect is dangerous and may gain immediate control of weapons. The determination of whether a sale of collateral was commercially reasonable requires a consideration of the totality of the circumstances surrounding the sale. Initio Partners; In corporate litigation, the court may order the payment of counsel fees and related expenses to a plaintiff whose efforts resulted in the creation of a common fund or the conferring of a corporate benefit. Elevator Co., Inc.; Benefits accruing for services rendered prior to the bankruptcy petition ordinarily relate back to the date of the services but "retiree benefits" under the Bankruptcy Code have a priority claim. De Wolff, Boberg & Associates, Inc.; Although no remedy is available for individual injuries in defined contribution plan, individuals may recover for fiduciary breaches that impair the value of plan assets in the participant's individual account. Sixth amendment confrontation clause demands, for an out of court statement to be admitted into evidence, the witness must be unavailable and defendant must have prior opportunity to cross examine the declarant. The confrontation clause is not violated by the admission of a nontestifying codefendant confession, with proper limiting instruction, when the confession is redacted to eliminate defendant name and any reference to her existence. Under the fifth amendment, a prosecutor may not comment on a defendant s decision not to testify at his trial and the court may not instruct the jury that the defendant's silence is evidence of his guilt. The fifth amendment protection against double jeopardy bars trial of an acquitted defendant on another charge unless the prior acquittal was based on evidence other than that involved in the second prosecution. Person who has been held in criminal contempt for committing criminal offense may not be criminally prosecuted for committing underlying offense if prosecution for the criminal offense does not require proof of different facts. A penalty will implicate the double jeopardy clause only if there was a legislative intent that the penalty be criminal in nature and if the statutory scheme is so punitive as to make the remedy criminal. A judge may not increase a sentence beyond the maximum allowed for an offense based on facts not proven at trial or admitted as a part of the guilty plea. In order to challenge a death sentence on the basis of racial discrimination, a defendant must show either a discriminatory purpose in his case or a discriminatory purpose in enacting or maintaining the death penalty. Under the eighth amendment, bail must be reasonably fixed to ensure a defendant will appear at trial based on the specific facts of the crime charged and not the character of the crime. If have probable cause to believe automobile contains articles that they may be entitled to seize, may search the vehicle pursuant to lawful arrest, without warrant, or impound vehicle into police custody to search at later time. Voluntary consent of any joint occupant of a residence to search the premises jointly occupied is valid against the co-occupant, permitting evidence discovered in the search to be used against the latter at a criminal trial. A secured party may not recover a deficiency judgment if sale of the collateral was commercially unreasonable, but the debtor may recover damages for the creditor's failure to comply with legal requirements for a sale. In re Toshiba America HD DVD Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation; express warranty is not created by mere puffery; a statement about future performance may create express warranty if it is an affirmation or representation. The EPA may consider both the health effects of pollution and the cost of abating it when determining whether a state SIP fails to comply with the Clean Air Act. Navigable waters; The phrase the waters of the United States, as used in the Clean Water Act, includes only those relatively permanent or continuously flowing bodies of water forming geographic features; wetlands are not navigable waters. Goldstene; If the California motor vehicle emissions regulations are granted a waiver by the EPA to the Clean Air Act, enforcement is not prevented by the doctrine of conflict preemption or by express preemption. Duke Energy Corp; A Clean Air Act permit is required for any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major stationary source that would result in a significant net emissions increase of any pollutant. EPA; EPA is not properly exercising its duty under the Clean Air Interstate Rule unless it is promulgating a rule that achieves something measureable toward the goal of prohibiting sources within one state from affecting another state. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; NHTSA has a duty to assess environmental impacts, including impact on climate change, of rules; enviornmental impact statement. Defenders of Wildlife; Endangered Species Act § 7(a)(2)'s application limited to actions in which discretionary federal involvement or control, and thus it does not apply in the context of mandatory EPA actions. Punitive damages awards must be weighed against the compensatory damages; reprehensibility of the defendant's conduct, disparity between actual harm caused and amount of the punitive damages awarded. Content based restriction, prior restraint, requiring permits for all public assemblies does not infringe on the freedom of speech, content neutral regulation of access to public property, provides adequate standards. Fourth amendment; right against self incriimination. The fifth amendment does not prevent compelled disclosure of client materials disclosed to an attorney where the materials would not be privileged in the hands of the client. The privilege against self incrimination protects against being compelled to provide information to a grand jury about the existence of sources of potentially incriminating evidence. C; For an attorney statement in the course of representation to form the basis of a misrepresentation claim, the statement must be more than a legal opinion and must relate to actual facts. Only increases in per hour emissions are modifications requires preapproval. 1367; if federal court has jurisdiction over a federal claim, it has supplemental jurisdiction over state claims so related to original jurisdiction that they form part of the same case or controversy. First Bancorp; no supplemental jurisdiction (formerly ancillary jurisdiction or pendent jurisdiction) if plaintiff's state law claims substantially predominate over the federal claims or raise complex or novel issues of state law. The collective rights interpretation of the second amendment is affirmed; right to maintain an effective state militia and does not establish an individual right to own or possess firearms for personal use, right to bear arms. Clarkstown, ordinance that discriminates against interstate commerce in favor of local business or investment is per se invalid, unless municipality demonstrates it has no other means to advance a legitimate local interest. An in court identification of a defendant by a witness must be excluded from evidence if it is based solely on a pretrial identification that was obtained without notice to and participation by defense counsel. The compulsory production of private books and papers subject to forfeiture compels owner to be witness against himself and is equivalent to an unreasonable search and seizure. La Salle II, LLC; the doctrine of impossibility of performance excuses performance if objectively impossible due to destruction of the subject matter of the contract or by operation of law.

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