Racial preferences in dating review of economic studies

Evidence from a concurrent economic review indicates that mental health benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in cost to health insurance plans, measured as a percentage of premiums.Mental health benefits legislation involves changing regulations for mental health insurance coverage to improve financial protection (i.e., decreased financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services including substance abuse services.Moving toward parity for mental health coverage is a key element of most mental health benefits legislation.Defined as having no greater restrictions for mental health coverage than physical health coverage (Employee Benefits Security Administration, 2010), parity can be considered on a continuum from limited to comprehensive.Mental health insurance under the federal parity law. Christian Picciolini was fourteen when he encountered his first white power skinhead.

racial preferences in dating review of economic studies-83racial preferences in dating review of economic studies-84racial preferences in dating review of economic studies-67

5 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 Database: JSTOR – Date Searched: 2/3/2011 Results: 195 Search Strategy: ( ("mental illness" or depression or anxiety or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "mood disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "alcohol dependence" or "alcohol drinking" or "drug abuse" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" or "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" or "addiction" or "drug addiction" or addict or addicts or "intravenous substance abuse" or "intravenous drug use" or "intravenous drug abuse" or "drug dependence") ) AND ("health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or "health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "community health centers" or "community health center" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "specialty visit" or "specialty visits") AND (legislation or statutes or jurisprudence or parity or mandate or mandates or mandated or regulation or regulations or equality or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities" or "equality" or "employee retirement income security act" ) AND (budget or budgets or economic or economics or costs or "cost analysis" or cost or "financial management" or "health expenditure" or "health expenditures" or "cost benefit analysis" or finance or finances or financing or expenditure or expenditures or "benefit design" or "benefit plan" or "benefit plans" or "cost benefit" or qaly or efficiency or dollar or dollars or "cost modeling" or "costs modeling" or "labor market" or "labor markets" or "cost sharing" or "out of pocket spending" or "out of pocket cost" or "out of pocket costs" or "cost of illness" or "catastrophic illness" or "catastrophic illnesses" or "out of pocket expense" or "out of pocket expenses" or "out of burden" or "out of burdens" or "financial burden" or "financial burdens" or "personal financing" or "medical debt" or "medical debts" or "medical bankruptcy" or "catastrophic cost" or "catastrophic costs" or "financial protection" or "financial protections" or "financial ruin" or "financial security" or "income security" or "financial distress" or "out-of-network") Database: Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science®) Date Searched: 2/2/2011 Results: 1821 Search Strategy: #12 #11 OR #10 #11 #7 AND #5 AND #4 AND #1 #10 #9 AND #8 #9 #7 AND #5 AND #1 #8 ti=(budget* or economic* or cost or costs or financing or finance or expenditure* or benefit or utility or utilization or "health coverage" or qaly or efficiency or dollar or "out-of-pocket" or debt or financial or burden or bankruptcy or ruin or security) #7 TS=(budget* or economic* or cost or costs or financing or finance or expenditure* or benefit or utility or utilization or "health coverage" or qaly or efficiency or dollar or "out-of-pocket" or debt or financial or burden or bankruptcy or ruin or security) #6 TI=("health insurance" or "insurance coverage" or "psychiatric insurance" or "benefits" or "health expenditures" or "comprehensive health care" or "universal coverage" or "managed care services" or "health maintenance organizations" or "managed care programs" or "insurance benefits" or "medically uninsured" or deductible or deductibles or coinsurance or "carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts" Or "health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or "health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "health care utilization" or "social services utilization" or "specialty visit" OR "specialty visits" ) #5 TS=("health insurance" or "insurance coverage" or "psychiatric insurance" or "benefits" or "health expenditures" or "comprehensive health care" or "universal coverage" or "managed care services" or "health maintenance organizations" or "managed care programs" or "insurance benefits" or "medically uninsured" or deductible or deductibles or coinsurance or "carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts" Or "health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or "health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "health care utilization" or "social services utilization" or "specialty visit" OR "specialty visits" ) #4 TS=("legislation" or "statutes" or "jurisprudence" or "mental health parity" or "mental health parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws" or mandate or mandates or mandated or "regulation" or "government regulation" or "equality" or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities") #3 TI=("legislation" or "statutes" or "jurisprudence" or "mental health parity" or "mental health parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws" or "mandate" or "mandates" or mandate or mandates or mandated or "regulation" or "government regulation" or "equality" or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities") #2 TI=("mental illness" or depression psychology or "anxiety" or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" or "drug addiction" or addict or addicts or "intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "drug dependence") #1 TS=("mental illness" or depression psychology or "anxiety" or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" or "drug addiction" or addict or addicts or "intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "drug dependence") American Psychological Association. State laws mandating or regulating mental health benefits. Fact Sheet: The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA).

It was 1987 and Christian was smoking pot with a friend in a back alley near his home in Blue Island, Illinois, when he was interrupted by a dark muscle car that pulled into the alley, spitting gravel and skidding to a stop just a few feet away.

“He came out of the passenger’s seat, beelined it straight to me with a dead look in his eyes,” Christian says.

Legislations and policies to expand mental health and substance abuse benefits in health insurance plans: a Community Guide systematic economic review. Behavioral health insurance parity: Does Oregon's experience presage the national experience with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act? Once the literature search was completed, Community Guide staff reviewed the citations using the following inclusion and exclusion criteria to narrow down the publications to be reviewed.

Studies were considered for inclusion if they: ABI/INFORM search strategy searched 1/25/2011 results 247 ("mental illness" or depression or anxiety or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" ) AND (parity or mandate or mandated or mandates) AND (insurance or uninsured or medicare or medicaid) Database: ABI/INFORM Research Look for terms in: Citation and abstract Publication type: All publication types CABI search strategy 1/24/2011 results 10 (Mental illness OR depression OR anxiety OR mental health services OR mental disorders OR dysthymic disorders OR post traumatic stress OR substance abuse OR alcohol abuse OR drug abuse OR drug addiction OR substance related disorders OR addictive behavior OR addictive behaviors OR addiction OR drug addiction OR addict OR addicts OR intravenous substance abuse OR intravenous drug use OR intravenous drug abuse OR drug addiction OR drug dependence) AND (legislation OR statutes OR jurisprudence OR mental health parity OR mental health parity legislation OR substance abuse parity legislation OR substance abuse parity OR parity OR parity legislation OR parity law OR parity laws OR mandate or mandates OR mandate OR mandates OR mandated OR regulation OR government regulation OR equality OR health care services policy OR health policy OR employee retirement income security act OR health care reform OR healthcare disparities OR health care disparities) AND (health insurance OR insurance coverage OR psychiatric insurance OR benefits OR health expenditures OR comprehensive health care OR universal coverage OR managed care services OR health maintenance organizations OR managed care programs OR insurance benefits OR medically uninsured OR deductible OR deductibles OR coinsurance OR carve-out OR carve-outs OR carveout OR carveouts OR health services accessibility OR access to health services OR health services access OR health care delivery OR delivery of health care OR integrated health care delivery OR integrated delivery of health care OR delivery of integrated health care OR community mental health centers OR community mental health services OR outpatient services OR utilization OR health care utilization OR social services utilization OR specialty visit OR specialty visits) CINAHL search strategy Searched 1/23/2011 results 813 S1 (MH "Employee Retirement Income Security Act") S2 (MH "Health Care Reform") S3 "health care disparity" S4 "healthcare disparity" S5 "healthcare disparities" S6 "health care disparities" S7 health care disparities S8 health care disparities S9 policy or policies S10 (MH "Health Policy") OR (MH "Public Policy") OR (MH "Policy Making") OR (MH "Policy Studies") OR (MH "Health Policy Studies") S11 "equality" S12 regulation or regulations S13 (MH "Rules and Regulations") OR (MH "Government Regulations") S14 mandate or mandated or mandates S15 parity laws S16 parity law S17 parity legislation S18 parity S19 substance abuse parity legislation S20 "substance abuse parity" S21 "mental health parity legislation" S22 mental health parity S23 (MH "Jurisprudence") S24 (MH "Legislation ") S25 S1 OR S2 OR S3 OR S4 OR S5 OR S6 OR S7 OR S8 OR S9 OR S10 OR S11 OR S12 OR S13 OR S14 OR S15 OR S16 OR S17 OR S18 OR S19 OR S20 OR S21 OR S22 OR S23 OR S24 S26 "specialty visit" S27 "specialty visits" S28 "specialty visits" S29 "specialty visit" S30 utilization S31 (MH "Health Resource Utilization") OR (MH "Resource Utilization Group") OR (MH "Utilization Review") S32 outpatient services S33 (MH "Outpatient Service") S34 (MH "Community Health Centers") S35 (MH "Community Mental Health Services ") S36 (MH "Health Care Delivery, Integrated") OR (MH "Health Care Delivery ") S37 (MH "Health Services Accessibility ") S38 S26 OR S27 OR S28 OR S29 OR S30 OR S31 OR S32 OR S33 OR S34 OR S35 OR S36 OR S37 S39 carve-out or carve-outs or carveout or carveouts S40 deductible S41 "coinsurance" S42 "deductibles" S43 (MH "Medically Uninsured") S44 (MH "Insurance Benefits") S45 (MH "Managed Care Programs ") S46 "universal coverage" S47 "comprehensive health care" S48 "health expenditures" S49 "health expenditures" S50 "employee health benefits" S51 "employee health benefit" S52 (MH "Insurance, Health ") S53 psychiatric insurance S54 (MM "Insurance Coverage") S55 S39 OR S40 OR S41 OR S42 OR S43 OR S44 OR S45 OR S46 OR S47 OR S48 OR S49 OR S50 OR S51 OR S52 OR S53 OR S54 S56 (MH "Substance Dependence") S57 "drug dependence" S58 alcohol dependence S59 (MH "Substance Abuse, Intravenous") S60 "addict" S61 addictions S62 addiction S63 (MH "Behavior, Addictive ") S64 (MH "Substance Use Disorders ") S65 substance related disorders S66 (MH "Alcohol Drinking") S67 (MM "Alcohol Drinking") S68 substance abuse S69 (MM "Substance Abuse (Saba CCC)") S70 (MM "Alcoholism") OR (MM "Alcohol Abuse") OR (MM "Substance Abuse") S71 (MM "Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic") S72 (MM "Anxiety") S73 mood disorders S74 (MM "Affective Disorders") S75 (MM "Dysthymic Disorder") S76 major depressive disorder S76 (MM "Depression") S77 mental illness S78 (MH "Mental Disorders ") S79 (MH "Mental Health Services ") S80 S56 OR S57 OR S58 OR S59 OR S60 OR S61 OR S62 OR S63 OR S64 OR S65 OR S66 OR S67 OR S68 OR S69 OR S70 OR S71 OR S72 OR S73 OR S74 OR S75 OR S76 OR S77 OR S78 OR S79 S81 S25 AND (S38 OR S55) AND S80 limit results to English Cochrane searched 1/19/2011 results 319 "mental illness" or depression or anxiety or "mental health" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" or "addictive behaviors" or addiction or addict or addicts or "substance abuse" or "intravenous drug use" or "drug dependence" :ti,ab,kw AND (insurance or "health expenditures" or "comprehensive health care" or "universal coverage" or "managed care" or "health maintenance organizations" or "medically uninsured" or deductible or deductibles or coinsurance or "carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts"):ti,ab,kw Embase (OVID) searched 10/8/2010 results 11,013 RESULTS=11013 for search performed on 10/8/2010 Database: ERIC (CSA) searched 1/14/2011 results 49 ("health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or "health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "health care utilization" or "social services utilization" or "specialty visit" OR "specialty visits") And ("legislation" or "statutes" or "jurisprudence" or "mental health parity" or "mental health parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws" or "mandate/mandates" or mandate or mandates or mandated or "regulation" or "government regulation" or "equality" or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities") And ("mental illness" or "depression psychology" or anxiety" or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" or "drug addiction" or addict or addicts or "intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "drug dependence") Lexis/Nexis Searched 01/28/2011 results 496 FOCUS™: (mental or drug w/1 abuse or addiction) and (insurance or legislation or benefits or medicare or medicaid) and (mandate or mandated or mandates or parity) and date(geq (01/01/2000) and leq (12/31/2003))(mental or drug w/1 abuse or addiction) and (insurance or legislation or benefits or medicare or medicaid) and (mandate or mandated or mandates or parity) and date(geq (01/01/2000) and leq (12/31/2003))(mental or drug w/1 abuse or addiction) and (insurance or legislation or benefits or medicare or medicaid) and (mandate or mandated or mandates or parity) and date(geq (01/01/2004) and leq (12/31/2005))(mental or drug w/1 abuse or addiction) and (insurance or legislation or benefits or medicare or medicaid) and (mandate or mandated or mandates or parity) and date(geq 2010 and leq 2011) (Search terms entered using external linking)LILACS searched 1/24/2011 results 4 insurance or "health expenditures" or "comprehensive health care" or "universal coverage" or "managed care" or "health maintenance organizations" or "medically uninsured" or deductible or deductibles or coinsurance or "carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts" and "mental illness" or depression or anxiety or "mental health" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" or "addictive behaviors" or addiction or addict or addicts or "substance abuse" or "intravenous drug use" or "drug dependence" or "health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or"health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "specialty visit" OR "specialty visits" and legislation or statutes or jurisprudence or parity or mandate or mandates or mandated or regulation or equality" or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities" National Council on State Legislatures searched on 1/29/2011 results 39 searched "mental insurance parity" National Research Register searched 1/30/2011 results 0 (zero) searched insurance parity NTIS (National Technical Information Service) searched 1/25/2011 results 18 searched insurance parity Database(s): Psyc INFO 1806 to January Week 2 2011 searched on 1/19/2011 results 3,207 Search Strategy: # Searches Results Pub Med Strategy 1/12/2011 results 141 (searched to pick up any additional articles not found in Ovid Medline search) Mental[Title] and parity[Title] SIGLE Searched System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe ( ) searched 1/30/2011 results 0 (zero) Searched mental insurance parity Sociological Abstracts – searched 1/14/2011 results 136 (((("health insurance")) or("insurance coverage") or("psychiatric insurance") or("benefits") or("health expenditures") or("comprehensive health care") or("universal coverage") or(("managed care services" or "health maintenance organizations")) or("managed care programs") or("insurance benefits") or("medically uninsured") or(deductible or deductibles or coinsurance) or("carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts")) and((("mental illness") or("depression psychology") or("anxiety")) or("mental health services") or("mental disorders") or("dysthymic disorders") or("post traumatic stress") or(("substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction")) or("substance related disorders") or("addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors") or(("addiction" or "drug addiction")) or(addict or addicts) or("intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse") or("drug addiction") or("drug dependence")) and((("legislation" or "statutes")) or("jurisprudence") or("mental health parity") or("mental health parity legislation") or("substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws") or("mandate/mandates") or(mandate or mandates or mandated) or(("regulation" or "government regulation")) or("equality") or(("health care services policy" or "health policy")) or("employee retirement income security act") or ("health care reform") or ("healthcare disparities") or ("health care disparities"))) or(((("mental illness") or("depression psychology") or("anxiety")) or("mental health services") or("mental disorders") or("dysthymic disorders") or("post traumatic stress") or(("substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction")) or("substance related disorders") or("addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors") or(("addiction" or "drug addiction")) or(addict or addicts) or("intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse") or("drug addiction") or("drug dependence")) and(("health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access") or("health care delivery" or "delivery of health care") or("integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care") or("community mental health centers") or("community mental health services") or("outpatient services") or(("utilization" or "health care utilization" or "social services utilization")) or("specialty visit" OR "specialty visits")) and((("legislation" or "statutes")) or("jurisprudence") or("mental health parity") or("mental health parity legislation") or("substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws") or("mandate/mandates") or(mandate or mandates or mandated) or(("regulation" or "government regulation")) or("equality") or(("health care services policy" or "health policy")) or("employee retirement income security act") or ("health care reform") or ("healthcare disparities") or ("health care disparities"))) Web of Science searched 1/23/2011 results 340 #1 AND #2 AND #3 #3 TS=("health insurance" or "insurance coverage" or "psychiatric insurance" or "benefits" or "health expenditures" or "comprehensive health care" or "universal coverage" or "managed care services" or "health maintenance organizations" or "managed care programs" or "insurance benefits" or "medically uninsured" or deductible or deductibles or coinsurance or "carve-out" or "carve-outs" or "carveout" or "carveouts" Or "health services accessibility" or "access to health services" or "health services access" or "health care delivery" or "delivery of health care" or "integrated health care delivery" or "integrated delivery of health care" or "delivery of integrated health care" or "community mental health centers" or "community mental health services" or "outpatient services" or "utilization" or "health care utilization" or "social services utilization" or "specialty visit" OR "specialty visits" ) AND Language=(English) #2 TS=("legislation" or "statutes" or "jurisprudence" or "mental health parity" or "mental health parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity legislation" or "substance abuse parity" or parity or "parity legislation" or "parity law" or "parity laws" or mandate or mandates or mandated or "regulation" or "government regulation" or "equality" or "health care services policy" or "health policy" or "employee retirement income security act" or "health care reform" or "healthcare disparities" or "health care disparities") AND Language=(English) #1 TS=("mental illness" or depression psychology or "anxiety" or "mental health services" or "mental disorders" or "dysthymic disorders" or "post traumatic stress" or "substance abuse" or "alcohol abuse" or "drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "substance related disorders" or "addictive behavior" OR "addictive behaviors" or "addiction" or "drug addiction" or addict or addicts or "intravenous substance abuse" OR "intravenous drug use" OR "intravenous drug abuse" or "drug addiction" or "drug dependence") AND Language=(English) Economic Review The economic review is based on evidence from the Community Guide search for effectiveness evidence (search period January 1950 - March 2011) and a separate focused search for economic evidence (search period January 1950 – February 2011).

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