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49 [0J3834-80 40 80 E-Mail: info [at] Printed in Germany on 100% recycled paper climate neutral produced COVER PHOTO Juliane Herrmann [LIAG] Aufschlul S Sutto in Nordungarn RIGHTS Copyright for articles by the authors LICENSE Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 1 and 2), soil colour was determined by Munsell soil colour charts. 2 and 4) (53.08°N, 10.52°E, 38 m a.s.l.) is located on a slip-off slope in a floodplain of a small watercourse close to the village of Seed- orf in the western part of the Liineburg Heath. This dose was then measured in the same manner as the equivalent dose in or- 120 E&G/Vol. This data indicates the applicability of the post-IR IRSL protocol. 9 ± 1.3 Gy to 14.9 ± 2.1 Gy, with a mean of 12.7 ± 0.5 Gy (n = 7) for p IRIR 225 .Org/licenses/by/3.0/ E&G Quaternary Science Journal Volume 60 / Number 1 / 2011 / 3-5 / DOI 10.3285/eg.6D.1.0D SCIENCE MEDIA ISSN 0424-7116 Loess in Europe Guest Editorial Manfred Frechen Address of author: M. The sequence consists of 1.75 m thick silty, clayey soil-sediment with fluvic and gleyic features. To confirm that the IRSL and the post-IR IRSL are bleachable by natural daylight we exposed three aliquots per sample for four hours to a Honle SOL2 solar simulator and then measured the apparent dose in the usual manner. Equivalent Dose (D e ), fading rates and age estimates In Table 3 the equivalent doses, dose recovery results, re- sidual doses, g-values and the resulting luminescence ages, both uncorrected as well as fading corrected, are summa- rized for all samples.The term"L6B" was first described in Central Europe by Karl Casar von Leonhard (1823/24) who reported yel- lowish brown, silty deposits along the Rhine valley near Heidelberg. From 133 cm upwards the stagnic Luvi- sol is overlain by a (sandy) loess colluvium showing weak cambic properties (Tab. The organic content assessed ranges from weak to very weak humic. 1982) and organic nitrogen using the Kjeldahl procedure. (2007b): Lumineszenzdatierungen an limnischen Sedimenten von Klinge/Kreis Forst. The D e -s calculated using the p IRIR 225 from feldspar range from 64.9 ± 2.3 Gy to 921 ± 41 Gy.Charles Lyell (1834) brought this term into widespread usage by observing similarities between loess and loess derivatives along the loess bluffs in the Rhine and Mississippi. The profile Kartof- felfeld is vertically subdivided (IUSS 2006) into the horizons Ap-Bwl-Bw2-Bw3-2Btb/Bgbl-2Bwbl/Bgbl-3Bwb2/Bgb2/C (Fig. By applying the German soil classification system (KA5 2005) the sequence of horizons can be described as Ap (0-30 cm) /M (30-54 cm) /M (54-82 cm) /M (82-110 cm) / Swd-Bt (110-133 cm) /Swd-Bv (133-138 cm) /Swd-Bv (138- E&G/Vol. Major (Al, Fe, and Mn) and trace (S, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Cd, Sr, Hg, V) elements were determined using an X-ray fluores- cence (XRF) spectrometer (Spectro Xepos-Benchtop-Roent- genfluoreszenz-Spektrometer) equipped with a Rh tube (Chen et al. Quality control of the analytical proce- dure was established using three internationally recognized standard reference materials (SRMs) viz., ISE, BCSS-1, and MESS-1. The D e values are in average -20% higher than those obtained using the IR 50 .(1994) and Frechen, Horv Ath & Gabris (1997) for the Austrian and Hungarian loess stratig- raphy, respectively. 2.3 Age determination The depositional ages of the sediments were determined mainly by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) with one sample for radiocarbon dating taken from the profile Schulwiese. The method is based on the accumulation of electrons in defects of the crystal lattice induced by the natural radio- activity in the surrounding sediment. Overestimated D e -values could, of course, also arise because of incomplete bleaching. Fading tests were carried out for all samples using the post-IR IRSL measurement sequence. The fading corrected age estimates for the IR 50 range from 23.7 ± 1.6 ka to 350 ka for the p IRIR 225 .Since the 1980s, thermoluminescence (TL), optically stim- ulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated lumines- cence (IRSL) dating are available providing the possibility for dating the time of loess (dust) deposition, i.e. Due to the physical mechanism of the OSL method, reliable and precise results E&G/Vol. However, it seems most likely that the laminated coarser dust-storm and loess layers were de- posited during high-glacial times; if such aeolian dust is making up a very large part of the sediment inventory it is difficult to accept that the IRSL is not well-bleached. The IR 50 and the p IRIR 225 are in agreement for samples Weil-Wei6.

49 [0]3834-80 40 60 E-Mail: helms [at] HOLGER FREUND, Wilhelmshaven [Germany] ICBM - Geoecology Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitat Oldenburg Schleusenstr 1 D-26382 Wilhelmshaven Germany Tel.: 49[0]4421-94 42 00 Fax: 49[0]4421-94 42 99 E-Mail: holger.freund [at] FORMER EDITORS-IN-CHIEF PAUL WOLDSTEDT [1951-1966] MARTIN SCHWARZBACH [1963-1966] ERNST SCHONHALS [1968-1978] REINHOLD HUCKRIEDE [1968-1978] HANS DIETRICH LANG [1980-1990] JOSEF KLOSTERMANN [1991-1999] WOLFGANG SCHIRMER [2000] ERNST BRUNOTTE [2001-2005] EDITORIAL BOARD KARL-ERNST BEHRE, Wilhelmshaven [Germany] HANS-RUDOLF BORK, Kiel [Germany] ARNTBRONGER, Kiel [Germany] JURGEN EHLERS, Hamburg [Germany] ETIENNE JUVIGNE, Liege [Belgium] WIGHARTVON KOENIGSWALD, Bonn [Germany] ELSE KOLSTRUR Uppsala [Sweden] JAN PIOTROWSKI, Aarhus [Denmark] LUDWIG REISCH, Erlangen [Germany] JEF VANDENBERGHE, Amsterdam [The Netherlands] BERND ZOLITSCHKA, Bremen [Germany] GUEST EDITOR MANFRED FRECHEN, Hannover [Germany] AIMS & SCOPE The Quaternary Science Journal publishes original articles of quaternary geology, geography, palaeontology, soil science, archaeology, climatology etc.; special issues with main topics and articles of lectures of several scientific events. There is archaeological evidence of an Iron Age cultural stage of the Jastorf culture (Seedorf- Stufe, Schwantes 1952, Hassler 1991) though as well as of Neolithic settlements (Sprockhoff 1975, Heege & Maier 1991, Geebers 1995, Richter 2002) in the area and of a number of archaeobotanical investigations from prehistor- ic sites. 1: Location of Seedorf, county of Uelzen, Lower Saxony and distribution of loess and sandy loess in northern Germany. This sequence was repeated several times on each aliquot. 4: Dose response and decay curves for samples a) Wei 6 and b) Wei 7 showing the IR 50 (filled symbols) and the p IRIR 225 signal (open symbols). 4: Aufbaukurve und Zerfallskurve fur Proben a) Wei 6 (gefullte Symbole) und b) Wei7 (offene Symbole) fur das IR 50 und das p IRIR 225 Signal. These curves are selected to be representative for all samples.Maar lakes and dry maars of the West Eifel Volcanic Field are excellent sediment traps and provide sediment records with the possibility to archive event-laminated sediments. Using OSL, we obtained D e values ranging from 440 ± 30 Gy to 580 ± 40 Gy for the fine-grain quartz extracts. 7: Fadingraten fur das IR 50 und das p IRIR 225 Signal fur alle Proben. Die Fehlerbalken stellen den 1-sigma Standardfehler dar. 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 O IR 50 , g-value = 4.79 ± 0.11 %/decade pl RIR 22 5, g-value = 2.31 ± 0.48 %/decade pl RIR 290 , g-value = 0.52 ±1.12 %/decade 0.1 10 100 Time (h) Fig. (2003): Measurement of anomalous fading for feldspar IRSL using SAR. The results of Bibus, Rahle & Wedel (1996, 2002) show that there is evidence for three warmer phases after the last interglacial, revealing the significant hiatus for our pro- file. For this synoptic view the interpretation of remote sensing data was complemented by ground investigation and physi- cal age determinations.Dietrich & Sirocko (this issue) describe the potential of mi- cro X-ray fluorescence (ji XRF) scanning to study bulk sedi- ment chemical data for major and trace elements in maar lake sediments to determine the elemental stratification within sediment cores. All these results exceed the 2D0 value of -260-300 Gy corresponding to minimum ages of -80-100 ka (although the laboratory growth curve does not fully saturate before -1000 Gy). 1.07 / ©Authors / Creative Commons Attribution License 113 JWS1 JWT3 JWT9 JWT5 JWT7 JWS8 JWT8 Sample ID Fig. 8: Anomalous fading of IRSL 50 , p IRIR 225 and p IRIR 290 signals. 8: Anomalous fading fur IRSL 50 , das p IRIR 225 und das p IRIR 290 Signal. Above the loess layer the Middle Wiirmian Lohne Soil (7 in Fig. (2010): New approaches to European loess: a stratigraphic and methodical review of the past decade. Luminescence ages (75 IRSL and 12 TL) of loess, loessoids and sands were determined to reconstruct the climatic history of the study area in the Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 3 to 1.The loess/palaeosol sequences from Saxony were re-in- vestigated by Meszner, Fuchs & Faust (this issue), who E&G /Vol. They identified three palaeosols for the so far poorly differentiated Weichselian Pleniglacial record in Saxony. To enable comparison of our results for samples from the drill core JW3 and the pub- lished age estimates of Degering & Krbetschek (2007a) we additionally measured one sample (JWT9) from drill core JW2 taken from a depth of 104.5 m. These layers can probably be correlated with a cold phase during MIS 7.In the Lower Rhine Embayment, detailed loess/palale- osol sequences have been described from the km-wide ex- posures of the brown coal open-cast mines and from many brickyards, e.g. Most of the studied sections give evidence for rich Palaeo- lithic (and younger periods) artefacts and settlement struc- tures. The results show that this sample is in saturation for all the different signals, IR 50 , p IRIR 225 and for p IRIR 290 suggesting a minimum age estimate of -270 ka for p IRIR 290 signal for this sample. It has to be mentioned that samples Wei5 and Wei4 were taken from reworked material.

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