Being female in a culture that sexually objectifies the female body has effects.
Girls and women are socialised into internalising the outside view of their bodies.
This means that they are more likely to habitually monitor the body and check social space for potential danger. There is a financial burden of course – taking that taxi at night, and so on.
But there is also a psychological and physical cost.
Girls and women are also far more likely to self-harm, the most widespread forms of which are denying the body adequate nourishment (anorexia) or cutting the skin.
Is it really right to consider these women to have a disordered sense of self, rather than view it as a symptom of society which sends out wildly contradictory messages of what it means to perform socially acceptable femininity?
Our minds are becoming more like automated data-processing machines, drained of creative dynamism and vibrancy.
While the research grows, individuals and communities have been sharply feeling the effects for a decade now.
helped fuel the feminist consciousness-raising movement. This was hardly perfect, of course, not least in neglecting how gender and madness intersect with racism, ableism and class privilege.
But it was perhaps more sophisticated than our current thinking where mental health campaigning is split off from fourth-wave feminism, and where treatment manuals for conditions that are experienced overwhelmingly by women fail to consider gender, or indeed sexual violence, at all.